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Poverty effects on education essays

Poverty Effects On Education Essays

Poverty effects on education essays

"Effects Of Poverty On Education" Essays and Research Papers Effects Of Poverty On Education. Exploring Poverty and Education Education Adult Education and Poverty Reduction. Adult Education and Poverty Reduction Education is Education Is Necessary to Alleviate Poverty. Poverty. SOCIAL. Essay The Effects Of Poverty On A Student Education. Children and families in poverty is something that many teachers have to face every day. Poverty can have an impact on a student education opportunities and their success in school. Poverty can impact development, learning, and . Open Document. Below is an essay on "Poverty: How It Affects Education" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples/5(1). Poverty and Education research papers discuss how poverty can impact an individuals education. Poverty and education are easily correlated in research that spans several disciplines. Sociology research papers and education research both illustrate that where there is poverty, there is a correlation to a lack of educational opportunities. The Relationship Between Lack of Education and Poverty Essay; The effects of child poverty are diverse and destructive. Not only can the children have adverse psychological health issues, but physical health problems as well. More about The Relationship Between Lack of Education and Poverty Essay. The Relationship Between Education And.

Telephone , fax , e-mail ac. All rights reserved This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Over the past decade, the unfortunate reality is that the income gap has widened between Canadian families. Educational outcomes are one of the key areas influenced by family incomes. Children from low-income families often start school already behind their peers who come from more affluent families, as shown in measures of school readiness.

However, both Canadian and international interventions have shown that the effects of poverty can be reduced using sustainable interventions. Paediatricians and family doctors have many opportunities to influence readiness for school and educational success in primary care settings.

Poverty remains a stubborn fact of life even in rich countries like Canada. In particular, the poverty of our children has been a continuing concern.

In , the Canadian House of Commons voted unanimously to eliminate poverty among Canadian children by 1. However, the reality is that, in , one of every six children still lived in poverty. Not only have we been unsuccessful at eradicating child poverty, but over the past decade, the inequity of family incomes in Canada has grown 2 , and for some families, the depth of poverty has increased as well 3.

Persistent socioeconomic disadvantage has a negative impact on the life outcomes of many Canadian children.

The impact of poverty on educational outcomes for children

Research from the Ontario Child Health Study in the mids reported noteworthy associations between low income and psychiatric disorders 5 , social and academic functioning 6 , and chronic physical health problems 7. Much of our current knowledge about the development of Canadian children is derived from the analysis of the NLSCY data by researchers in a variety of settings.

One of the key areas influenced by family income is educational outcomes. The present article provides a brief review of the literature concerning the effects of poverty on educational outcomes focusing on Canadian research.

Poverty effects on education essays

We conclude with some suggestions about what we can do, as advocates and practitioners, to work toward reducing the negative impact of economic disadvantage on the educational outcomes of our children. It requires physical well-being and appropriate motor development, emotional health and a positive approach to new experiences, age-appropriate social knowledge and competence, age-appropriate language skills, and age-appropriate general knowledge and cognitive skills 9.

Six poverty-related factors are known to impact child development in general and school readiness in particular. Children from low-income families often do not receive the stimulation and do not learn the social skills required to prepare them for school. Typical problems are parental inconsistency with regard to daily routines and parenting , frequent changes of primary caregivers, lack of supervision and poor role modelling. Very often, the parents of these children also lack support.

Canadian studies have also demonstrated the association between low-income households and decreased school readiness.

Poverty Affects Education--And Our Systems Perpetuate It

A report by Thomas 10 concluded that children from lower income households score significantly lower on measures of vocabulary and communication skills, knowledge of numbers, copying and symbol use, ability to concentrate and cooperative play with other children than children from higher income households. Janus et al 11 found that schools with the largest proportion of children with low school readiness were from neighbourhoods of high social risk, including poverty.

Willms 12 established that children from lower socioeconomic status SES households scored lower on a receptive vocabulary test than higher SES children. Thus, the evidence is clear and unanimous that poor children arrive at school at a cognitive and behavioural disadvantage. Schools are obviously not in a position to equalize this gap. For instance, research by The Institute of Research and Public Policy Montreal, Quebec showed that differences between students from low and high socioeconomic neighbourhoods were evident by grade 3; children from low socioeconomic neighbourhoods were less likely to pass a grade 3 standards test Phipps and Lethbridge 15 examined income and child outcomes in children four to 15 years of age based on data from the NLSCY.

In this study, higher incomes were consistently associated with better outcomes for children. The largest effects were for cognitive and school measures teacher-administered math and reading scores , followed by behavioural and health measures, and then social and emotional measures, which had the smallest associations.

These Canadian findings are accompanied by a large number of studies in the United States that have shown that socioeconomic disadvantage and other risk factors that are associated with poverty eg, lower parental education and high family stress have a negative effect on cognitive development and academic achievement, smaller effects on behaviour and inconsistent effects on socioemotional outcomes 17 — Living in extreme and persistent poverty has particularly negative effects 18 , although the consequences of not being defined below the poverty line but still suffering from material hardship should not be underestimated Furthermore, American studies found strong interaction effects between SES and exposure to risk factors.

For instance, parents from disadvantaged backgrounds were not only more likely to have their babies born prematurely, but these prematurely born children were also disproportionately at higher risk for school failure than children with a similar neonatal record from higher income families It is worth noting that international studies have consistently shown similar associations between socioeconomic measures and academic outcomes.

At these two different stages of schooling, there was a significant relationship between SES and educational measure in all countries. Test results can be misleading and can mask the gradient if the sample does not account for all children who should be completing the test. A study 13 completed by the Institute of Research and Public Policy demonstrated only small differences between low and high socioeconomic students when test results were compared in those students who sat for the examination.

However, when results were compared for the entire body of children who should have written the examination, the differences between low and high socioeconomic students were staggering, mainly due to the over-representation of those who left school early in the low socioeconomic group. Longitudinal studies carried out in the United States have been crucial in demonstrating some of the key factors in producing and maintaining poor achievement. Comparisons of the academic growth curves of students during the school year and over the summer showed that much of the achievement gap between low and high SES students could be related to their out-of-school environment families and communities.

This result strongly supports the notion that schools play a crucial compensatory role; however, it also shows the importance of continued support for disadvantaged students outside of the school environment among their families and within their communities Once again, the evidence indicates that students from low-income families are disadvantaged right through the education system to postsecondary training.

A variety of data are relevant to this question, and recent research gives us reason to be both positive and proactive. Early intervention There is a direct link between early childhood intervention and increased social and cognitive ability Prevention and intervention programs that target health concerns eg, immunization and prenatal care are associated with better health outcomes for low-income children and result in increased cognitive ability However, it is the parent-child relationship that has been proven to have the greatest influence on reversing the impact of poverty.

Characteristics of parenting such as predictability of behaviour, social responsiveness, verbal behaviour, mutual attention and positive role modelling have been shown to have a positive effect on several aspects of child outcome.

Parental involvement, such as frequency of outings 29 and problem-based play, creates greater intellectual stimulation and educational support for a child, and develops into increased school readiness Their underlying goal is to develop the skills lacking in children, that have already developed in other children who are of a similar age.

There is general agreement that interventions should be data driven, and that assessments and interventions should be closely linked. A primary evaluation of a child and family support systems is, therefore, pivotal in the creation of individualized interventions to ensure success in placing children on a normative trajectory Karoly et al 31 reported the magnitude of effects that early intervention programs have on children.

Measured at school entry, they found a pooled mean effect size of around 0. This means that for many interventions, children in the program were, on average, one-half to a full standard deviation above their peers who were not in the program.

Interestingly, they found that interventions that combined parent education programs with child programs had significantly higher effect sizes. Furthermore, interventions that continued beyond the early years showed significantly lower fade-out effects. The results strongly support the notion that early interventions should include the whole family and be continued beyond the early years. Constant evaluation of interventions should be completed to ensure that the benefits for children are maximized using these key components.

Individual, and small and large group formats are used for teacher-and-child planned activities in the key subject areas of language and literacy, mathematics, science, music and rhythmic movement.

There has been ongoing evaluation of the approach since using low-income African-American children at high risk of school failure Fifty-eight children received high-quality early care and an educational setting, as well as home visits from the teachers to discuss their developmental progress.

Poverty Affects Education--And Our Systems Perpetuate It

By 40 years of age, children who received the intervention were more likely to have graduated high school, hold a job, have higher earnings and have committed fewer crimes. Similar positive effects of preschool intervention were found in the evaluation of the Abecedarian project This project enlisted children between infancy and five years of age from low-income families to receive a high-quality educational intervention that was individualized to their needs.

The intervention used games focused on social, emotional and cognitive areas of development. Children were evaluated at 12, 15 and 21 years of age, and those who had received the intervention had higher cognitive test scores, had greater academic achievement in reading and math, had completed more years of education and were more likely to have attended a four-year college.

Interestingly, the mothers of children participating in the program also had higher educational and employment status after the intervention. One of the oldest and most eminent early intervention programs is the Chicago Child Parent Center program. The intervention targets students who are between preschool and grade 3 through language-based activities, outreach activities, ongoing staff development and health services.

Importantly, there is no set curriculum; the program is tailored to the needs of each child One crucial feature of the program is the extensive involvement of parents.

Poverty Affects Education--And Our Systems Perpetuate It

An evaluation of the Chicago Child Parent Center Program was completed by Reynolds 34 using a sample of black children from low-income families. They were exposed to the intervention in preschool, kindergarten and follow-up components. Two years after the completion of the intervention, the results indicated that the duration of intervention was associated with greater academic achievement in reading and mathematics, teacher ratings of school adjustment, parental involvement in school activities, grade retention and special education placement Evaluation of the long-term effects of the intervention was completed by Reynolds 35 after 15 years of follow-up.

Poverty effects on education essays

Individuals who had participated in the early childhood intervention for at least one or two years had higher rates of school completion, had attained more years of education, and had lower rates of juvenile arrests, violent arrests leaving school early.

Later intervention A common question concerns the stage at which it is too late for interventions to be successful. Recent findings N Rowen, personal communication from an uncontrolled community study in Toronto, Ontario, have suggested that a multisys-temic intervention as students transition to high school can produce dramatic results. The Pathways to Education project began because of a community parents request to a local health agency to help their children succeed in high school. The community consisted mainly of people from a public housing complex, with the majority of families being poor, immigrants and from visible minority groups.

The Pathways project grew out of a partnership between the community, the health centre and the school board, and was funded by a variety of sources. The Pathways project has been running for six years, and the results for the first five cohorts of students have been exciting. While these initial results must be replicated in other communities, they suggest that, even at the high school level, interventions can be startlingly effective, even in a community with a long history of poverty, recent immigration and racism.

As the proponents of Pathways move to replication, they will need to be careful to untangle the effects of community commitment, school board collaboration and the rich set of collaborations that have been a hallmark of this first demonstration project. Nevertheless, Pathways has made it clear that Canadian communities possess the capacity to change the education outcomes of their children and youth.

Causes and Effects of Poverty

While it takes resolve and resources to achieve such effects, initial analysis suggests that over the lifetime of the students, each dollar invested will be returned to Canada more than 24 times 36! Schools make a difference Canadian and international research on educational outcomes has revealed important data on the effects of schools and classrooms.

Frempong and Willms 37 used complex analyses of student performance in mathematics to demonstrate that Canadian schools, and even classrooms, do make a difference in student outcomes ie, students from similar home backgrounds achieve significantly different levels of performance in different schools.

Furthermore, schools and classrooms differ in their SES gradients ie, some schools achieve not just higher scores, but more equitable outcomes than others. These general findings were corroborated by Willms 38 using reading scores from children in grade 4 and those 15 years of age from 34 countries.

Once again, it was demonstrated that schools make a difference and that some schools are more equitable than others. These activities should be encouraged in all schools to maximize school readiness. A key to making schools more effective at raising the performance of low SES students is to keep schools heterogeneous with regard to the SES of their students ie, all types of streaming result in markedly poor outcomes for disadvantaged children and youth.

Balancing the consistent evidence about the pervasive negative impact of poverty on educational outcomes with the hopeful positive outcomes of intervention studies, what can we do in our communities to attenuate the effects of poverty and SES on academic success? Here are some important actions: