Onake obavva essay in kannada. Onake obavva essay in kannada September 30, 0 View. Writing essay cae tasks proposal a creative writing task academic pdf The brave new world essay westworld E education essay english and hindi teacher training essay jokes. Rani Chennamma did provoke many women to rise against the British rule. She was Chennamma Queen of the princely state Kittur in Karnataka. Today she is well known as Kittur Rani Chennamma. In the state of Karnataka, she is celebrated along with Abbakka Rani, Keladi Chennamma and Onake Obavva. Onake obavva essay in kannada Corporate News. Onake obavva essay in kannada “WE SET BENCHMARKS IN HEALTHCARE-AND THEN RAISE IT OURSELVES “ Brainvoyager dti analysis essay, english essay writing. Mar 03, · onake obavva I have read the story of onake obavva as a kid in text books and the story has stuck on to me. Hyder Ali planned to attack the fort of Chitradurga, . Oct 21, · Onake Obavva’s courage and quick thinking single-handedly saved the fort that day. Her bravery is commemorated in Chitradurga by the name of Onake Obavva Stadium and by an extraordinary new sculpture near the DC Office.
Mysore was ultimately the most successful of these polities and its history dominates what has been written about this period. Several smaller kingdoms, most notably Chitradurga and Keladi Bednur, Bednore , endured into the middle s and were of considerable regional importance. Between , Chitradurga was at times a province of Vijayanagara, an independent kingdom, a tributary of the Marathas, a tributary of the Mughals, a tributary of Mysore, and, finally, a Mysore province.
In spite of this tumultuous past, the Chitradurga nayakas have received so little attention from modern researchers that, until recently, its story was only a modest footnote in Karnataka history. Origins of the Chitradurga Nayakas Chitradurga was one of several central Karnataka regions governed by local chieftains well before the rise of Vijayanagara, which inherited control of the region from the Hoysalas in the early s.
By the s, it was largely dominated by Bedar Valmiki families who traced their origins to southern Andhra Pradesh from which they had emigrated with their herds.
Like most of the families that rose to power in the s, the Chitradurga nayakas based the legitimacy of their rule on their relationship with the Vijayanagara kings, who appointed several of their line as local governors after they attracted the attention of the Vijayanagara rulers through acts of daring and bravery. One such ruler was Timmanna Nayaka, who was attacked by a Vijayanagara force in the early s because he had raided neighboring poligar territories.
In a daring act of bravery and sheer arrogance, Timmanna Nayaka decided to steal the horse of the Vijayanagara prince who commanded the forces sent against him. Before he could make his getaway, a groom arrived to re-tether the horse. It is said that the event convinced the Vijayanagara army that they could not defeat Timmanna Nayaka and they sued for peace.
The Vijayanagara king formally appointed him as the governor of Chitradurga and he enjoyed a brief interlude of favor at court.
Regrettably, it did not last and he died in prison at Vijayanagara. Chitradurga Fort is the most visible modern reminder of the nayakas who once held sway across this part of central Karnataka. Although traces of older fortification walls can still be found there the best example being the early Vijayanagara era covered gateway and walls you pass through when you enter the fort past the ASI ticket booth on Ta Ra Su Street , most of the standing walls and gateways were constructed by the Chitradurga nayakas and Tipu Sultan.
This fort was effectively the heart of the kingdom. Royal Display AreaThe gateway in the right foreground leads to Hidimbeswara temple, one of the oldest temples on the hill.
A monolithic pillar and two swing frames lie between the entrance to this gateway and the Sampige Siddheshvara temple, which rests at the foot of the hill in the left background. The MintWest of the Hidimbeswara Temple complex right background is a walled compound popularly called the Mint foreground. A road leads past the Mint to the main western gate, called Basavana Bagilu, and another line of fortifications, which protect the inner fort.
Inner FortThis area contains the remains of the palace complex, its ornamental gardens, and many warehouses and granaries. In the background, across the Gopalaswamy Honda, can be seen the Gopalakrishna Temple, the image of which is mentioned in inscriptions that date to the early 14th century. Independence and Expansion After the fall of the city of Vijayanagara in , the Chitradurga family and most other central Karnataka nayakas soon declared their independence of the remnants of that empire.
They also were in the thick of the chronic regional warfare that devastated central Karnataka for the next years. They warred repeatedly with the Basavapatna or Tarikere poligars whose country lay to the west, with the Harapanahalli poligars to the north at Uchchangidurga; with the Harati or Nidugal family at Dodderi and later at Nidugal; with the Hatti family, whose headquarters town was Nayakanahatti; and with the Rayadurga poligars, among others.
The political stability of the region was complicated further in the mids, when the Mughals invaded central Karnataka and established the suba or major province of Sira. Although the territories of many former poligars in the region became parganas or lesser provinces under the Mughals, Chitradurga was one of the fortunate few to enjoy limited independence as a tributary of Sira. These events did not lessen the pace of regional warfare, which continued on the borders of Chitradurga.
He succeeded to the Chitradurga throne in and the kingdom enjoyed considerable military and economic successes during his reign. It ended, however, when a coalition of armies of the principal poligars whose territories bordered that of Chitradurga drew him into a decisive battle at Mayaconda around A kafiyat or town history, which was recorded at Mayaconda in , describes how Hire Madakeri Nayaka advanced to receive the attack of his enemies with 20, Chitradurga soldiers and 5, soldiers of his Maratha allies.
When the armies met, however, the Marathas refused to fight, having reputedly been bribed by the poligar coalition to stay out of the battle.
Defeated, the Chitradurga troops retreated and the poligar coalition army laid siege to Mayakonda fort for several months. Today, little evidence marks the mids clash of armies at Mayakonda. There is no trace either of the substantial fort that once stood here.
All that remains is a small mantapa a little beyond the north side of town and, largely obscured by the grass and weeds around it, one can see the faint outline of what was once a small ornamental garden in the Mughal style.
Gambling that the Marathas would eventually prevail, the Chitradurga rulers entered into secret negotiations with them. Had the plan succeeded, they would have had a valuable ally in their continuing military conflicts with the Keladi Bednore kings of modern-day Shimoga district; it may have even helped them to sustain their rule into the 19th century.
Haidar Ali, however, proved to be more than equal to the task of dealing with Chitradurga and thwarting the regional ambitions of the Marathas. After three sharp clashes with Chitradurga in the s and s, Haidar Ali finally took the fort in and the region became a Mysore province.
Madakari Nayaka IV, the last ruler of Chitradurga, and his family were imprisoned at Shrirangapattana, where they died. To break the power of the Bedar caste in the region, which had loyally supported the Chitradurga nayakas, Haidar Ali is said to have moved more than 20, Bedars from Chitradurga to Shrirangapattana, the young men of which were pressed in his chela battalions and recruited into his army.
As the historian and early British Resident at Mysore noted in the early s, Chitradurga soldiers in the Mysore army enjoyed a reputation for bravery and military effectiveness in the Mysore wars that followed in the late s. Among the many heroes and heroines of Chitradurga, mention must be made of Onake Obavva, the wife of a common soldier, who, while fetching water during one of the several sieges of the fort, heard the muffled sound of enemy soldiers attempting to enter the fort walls through a small crevice that was just big enough for one person at a time to crawl through.
Hiding silently next to the crevice with an onake, or pestle, she killed each soldier as his head appeared in the opening and dragged his body inside the wall.
Rani Abbakka Chowta – Biography, Story, Facts in Hindi
By the time her husband and others came to her aid, many dead soldiers lay around her. Her bravery is commemorated in Chitradurga by the name of Onake Obavva Stadium and by an extraordinary new sculpture near the DC Office. The sculpture was commissioned by the Government of Karnataka and brilliantly executed by the distinguished sculptor Ashok Gudigar. Fort GatewaysMany of the fortification lines possess elaborate gateways.
This gateway on the eastern side of the fort shows design elements typical of the Bahami sultanate in northern Karnataka. The wall walks and gun platforms seen in this slide are among the latest additions to the fort. Their design and construction suggest that they were built by mercenary European military engineers in the late s. Storehouses and GranariesForts show considerable investment in storage facilities for food, water, and the military stores necessary to withstand a siege. Chitradurga is unusual among South Indian forts in that its storage facilities are still well preserved.
Mud BricksMud brick walls of the storehouses and granaries at Chitradurga Fort. These bricks were laid down more than years ago and are slowly melting away with each monsoon. Chitradurga remained a Mysore province and was governed from Mysore. He requested a troop escort and passports so he could visit Madras to make his claim as the legitimate successor to Madakari Nayaka IV.
After what was undoubtedly very careful consideration of the political implications of his requests, the Governor-in-Council at Madras rejected his claim to Chitradurga because Madakari Nayaka IV surrendered to Haidar Ali before the British conquest of Mysore and Dodda Madakari Nayaka had entered the service of Haidar Ali after the fall of Chitradurga, but later deserted to Travancore.
By this reasoning, he had no legitimate claim to the territory of Chitradurga, whether from his relationship with Madakari Nayaka IV or with Tipu Sultan. Such a possibility, of course, was not in the interests of the Wodeyars or the British. Until the late s when Davangere district was created, the boundaries of Chitradurga district reflected its nayaka heritage.
Chitradurga, AD The province consisted of 12 parganas, each of which contained a headquarters town that answered to the provincial capital at Chitradurga. Sentry BoxesMany of the latest additions to the fort were made of fired bricks set in mortar, covered with a thin veneer of cement or chunam, and painted. Much of this brickwork has lost its protective coating of cement over the past years. This sign, painted on a boulder, identified the location of a post.
Scottish CannonThis cannon, one of two pounders abandoned at the Tipu Sultan Battery on the northeastern corner of the fort, was cast in at the Carron Works in Falkirk, Scotland.