Charles' decision to rule without Parliament in marked an eleven year period of personal rule. Whilst the Whig historians viewed the eleven years of governance without parliament as the "Eleven Years' Tyranny"; contemporary historians seem to be more compassionate with Charles' actions. Tyranny is a government in which a single ruler is vested with absolute power. The Constitution had guarded against tyranny in four different ways which were Federalism, Separation of powers, Checks and balances and Big states vs small states The beginning guard against tyranny was Federalism, which is a political concept in which a group of members are bound together by covenant. This eleven-year period of the King’s “Personal Rule” was known as the “Eleven Years Tyranny” to his opponents. We will write a custom essay sample on To what extent is it appropriate to describe Charles’ rule without Parliament specifically for you. This essay will discuss and deal with the different factors that gave rise to the English Civil War. As was said above, one of the main problems of Charles’ reign was the lack of money and, undoubtedly, this was a good reason for a civil war. History of English literatures. 1. Place the following works/authors in chronological order, starting with the earliest work: (a list of 10 works/authors). Eleven Years' Tyranny King reigns without Parliament The essay was originally printed in the form of a pamphlet. At the time of its publication, , a pamphlet was a.
Names[ edit ] Whig historians such as S. Gardiner called this period the "Eleven Years' Tyranny", because they interpret Charles's actions as authoritarian and a contributing factor to the instability that led to the English Civil War. More recent historians such as Kevin Sharp called the period "Personal Rule", because they consider it to be a neutral term, and some such as Sharpe have emphasised the positive aspects of the period.
Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. March Learn how and when to remove this template message In the Medieval period, government in England was very much centred on the King.
He ruled personally, usually assisted by his Council, the Curia Regis. The council members were chosen by the King, and its membership varied greatly, but members often included powerful nobility and churchmen, senior civil servants , and sometimes certain members of the King's friends and family. Early parliaments began to emerge under Edward I , who wished to implement taxation changes and wide-ranging law reforms, and sought to gain the consent of the nation.
Nevertheless, calling a parliament was an expensive and time-consuming process, requiring many personal invitations for the House of Lords and elections in the shires and chartered cities and boroughs. So parliaments would only be summoned on particularly important occasions. Once a parliament had finished its business, the King would dissolve it, and perhaps not summon another for an extended period; in the meantime, the Curia Regis — that is, the King with his chosen advisers — would make laws "ordinances" , spend money, and carry on the business of government.
From the 14th to the 16th centuries, the acknowledged powers of Parliament grew. In particular, it was established that Parliament was the only body that could authorise nationwide taxation and excise. There were practical underpinnings to these powers, for those who elected representatives to Parliament at this time were the same people the monarch had to rely on to collect and remit taxes on a large scale: If a sovereign were to attempt to impose new taxes without consulting the gentry then the gentry could have simply refused to collect the taxes, and the monarch would have had little feasible recourse.
Once summoned, a parliament could take the opportunity to submit policy proposals to the monarch " bills " , which would be expected to take precedence over ordinances if signed into law by the monarch, although s he was under no obligation to grant the Royal Assent to any such proposal.
Eleven Years Tyranny
However, monarchs did increasingly use parliaments more widely in lawmaking as a way of gaining popular support for their policies.
The first of the Stuart monarchs to rule England, James I , was perennially short of money and he was obliged to summon parliaments often. Successive parliaments thereupon sought to turn the King's financial woes to their advantage, requiring various policy concessions before voting taxes.
In , James was succeeded by his son Charles I , who immediately plunged England into an expensive and ultimately unsuccessful war with Spain, in an attempt to force the Catholic Spanish King Philip IV to intercede with the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II on behalf of Charles's brother-in-law, Frederick V, Elector Palatine , the husband of Charles's sister Elizabeth, to regain the Electorate of the Palatinate and his hereditary lands, which the Emperor had taken from him.
Parliament's protests about the war's mismanagement by the Duke of Buckingham , and others of Charles' policies, primarily regarding taxation and other methods of acquiring funds, and Charles' refusal to compromise, eventually led to Charles dissolving Parliament in March He also made peace with Spain and France, largely because the financial burden of waging these wars could not be sustained without funds that Parliament alone could provide.
For the next eleven years, Charles governed with only an advisory council of royal appointees. Finances[ edit ] The greatest problem Charles initially encountered at this stage was a continued lack of funds. The main sources of income for the King were customs duties, feudal dues and income from the King's personal estates. Nationwide taxation was widely understood to be for emergencies and special purposes, such as war, and it was by this time generally accepted that only Parliament could authorise a general tax.
But even in peacetime, the traditional sources of the King's revenue were stretched to the limit to fund the business of government.
So Charles and his advisers developed various schemes to raise additional revenue without recourse to Parliament. A large fiscal deficit had arisen in the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I. Throughout his reign Charles was obliged to rely primarily on volunteer forces for defence and on diplomatic efforts to support his sister, Elizabeth, and his foreign policy objective for the restoration of the Palatinate. Relying on this old statute, Charles fined individuals who had failed to attend his coronation in Previously, collection of ship money had been authorised only during wars, and only on coastal regions.
Charles, however, argued that there was no legal bar to collecting the tax for defence during peacetime and throughout the whole of the kingdom. In addition, the boundaries of the royal forests in England were extended to their ancient limits as part of a scheme to maximise income by exploiting the land and fining land users within the re-asserted boundaries for encroachment. Courtiers were asked to survey the lands, to provide programmes to disafforest these areas.
The focus of the programme was disafforestation and sale of forest lands for development as pasture and arable, or in the case of the Forest of Dean , development for the iron industry. This included providing compensation to people using the lands in common, especially manorial lords and their tenants.
5 Steps to Tyranny
Others who had settled illegally were not entitled to compensation and frequently rioted. The discontent following a major wave of sales included what was known as the Western Rising , but extended beyond, for instance to riots in Feckenham Forest and Malvern Chase.
Against the background of this unrest, Charles faced bankruptcy in the summer of as parliament continued to refuse new taxes. The City of London, preoccupied with its own grievances further refused to make any loans to the king, and likewise he was unable to subscribe any foreign loans.
In this extremity, Charles seized the money held in trust at the mint of the Exchequer in the tower of London. The royal mint held a monopoly on the exchange of foreign coin and from this the mint operated as a bank containing much capital of the merchants and goldsmiths of the city.
Of equal importance, Charles learned to spend less extravagantly compared to his father. This section does not cite any sources.
The Eleven Years’ Tyranny
March Learn how and when to remove this template message The Personal Rule began to unravel in , when Charles, along with his advisor Archbishop Laud , attempted to reform the then-episcopal Church of Scotland to bring it into line, especially in its liturgy, with the Church of England. This met with immense Scottish opposition and when negotiations broke down, a Scottish army invaded England see the Bishop's War.
Charles could not afford to pay English troops to fight the Scots, and was obliged in to call the Short Parliament.
This ended the Personal Rule, though Charles dissolved the Short Parliament after only a few days; by the end of the year, with the Scots still in England and no other routes left to him, he summoned the Long Parliament.
In the months that followed, the Parliamentary leaders, turning their attention to domestic matters, demanded from Charles ever more sweeping concessions over government policy. In , Charles left London to raise an army and regain control by force, and the English Civil War began.