Restricted Response - These essay questions limit what the student will discuss in the essay based on the wording of the question. For example, "State the main differences between John Adams' and Thomas Jefferson's beliefs about federalism," is a restricted response. What the student is to write about has been expressed to them within the question. A secure AP United States History Exam is available on the Exam Questions and Scoring Information. For free-response questions from recent exams, along with scoring information, check out the tables below. AP U.S. History Student Samples Aligned to the Rubrics - Long Essay Question. An “A” essay: Answers the specific central question that was asked; Incorporates pertinent and detailed information from both class discussion and assigned readings . issue in question. Scores on WritePlacer range from 1 to 8. An essay that is too short to be evaluated, written on a topic other than the one presented, or written in a language other than English will be given a score of zero. Information for Students. WritePlacer gives you an opportunity to show how effectively you can develop and. Offers biased interpretations of evidence, statements, graphics, questions, information, or the points of view of others. • Instructions for Using the Holistic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric: 1. Understand the Construct Holistic scoring requires focus. In any essay, presentation, or clinical practice setting many.
- Chapter 1. What Are Rubrics and Why Are They Important?
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Chapter 1. What Are Rubrics and Why Are They Important?
One or Several Judgments? Analytic Each criterion dimension, trait is evaluated separately. Gives diagnostic information to teacher. Gives formative feedback to students.
Easier to link to instruction than holistic rubrics.
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Good for formative assessment; adaptable for summative assessment; if you need an overall score for grading, you can combine the scores. Takes more time to score than holistic rubrics. Takes more time to achieve inter-rater reliability than with holistic rubrics. Holistic All criteria dimensions, traits are evaluated simultaneously. Scoring is faster than with analytic rubrics. Requires less time to achieve inter-rater reliability. Good for summative assessment. Single overall score does not communicate information about what to do to improve.
Not good for formative assessment. General Description of work gives characteristics that apply to a whole family of tasks e. Can share with students, explicitly linking assessment and instruction. Reuse same rubrics with several tasks or assignments.
Supports learning by helping students see "good work" as bigger than one task. Students can help construct general rubrics. Lower reliability at first than with task-specific rubrics.
Requires practice to apply well. Task-Specific Description of work refers to the specific content of a particular task e. Teachers sometimes say using these makes scoring "easier.
Cannot share with students would give away answers. Need to write new rubrics for each task. For open-ended tasks, good answers not listed in rubrics may be evaluated poorly. From Assessment and Grading in Classrooms p. Brookhart and Anthony J. Copyright by Pearson Education. Analytic and holistic rubrics Analytic rubrics describe work on each criterion separately. Holistic rubrics describe the work by applying all the criteria at the same time and enabling an overall judgment about the quality of the work.
The top panel of Figure 1. For most classroom purposes, analytic rubrics are best. Focusing on the criteria one at a time is better for instruction and better for formative assessment because students can see what aspects of their work need what kind of attention. Focusing on the criteria one at a time is good for any summative assessment grading that will also be used to make decisions about the future—for example, decisions about how to follow up on a unit or decisions about how to teach something next year.
One classroom purpose for which holistic rubrics are better than analytic rubrics is the situation in which students will not see the results of a final summative assessment and you will not really use the information for anything except a grade.
Some high school final examinations fall into this category. Grading with rubrics is faster when there is only one decision to make, rather than a separate decision for each criterion. On balance, for most classroom purposes I recommend analytic rubrics. Therefore, most of the examples in this book will be analytic rubrics. Before we leave holistic rubrics, however, I want to reemphasize the important point that all the criteria are used in holistic rubrics. You consider them together, but you don't boil down the evaluation to the old "excellent-good-fair-poor" kind of thinking along one general "judgment" dimension.
True holistic rubrics are still rubrics; that is, they are based on criteria for good work and on observation of how the work meets those criteria. General and task-specific rubrics General rubrics use criteria and descriptions of performance that generalize across hence the name general rubrics , or can be used with, different tasks.
The tasks all have to be instances of the same learning outcome—for example, writing or mathematics problem solving. The criteria point to aspects of the learning outcome and not to features of any one specific task for example, criteria list characteristics of good problem solving and not features of the solution to a specific problem.
The descriptions of performance are general, so students learn general qualities and not isolated, task-specific features for example, the description might say all relevant information was used to solve the problem, not that the numbers of knives, forks, spoons, and guests were used to solve the problem. Task-specific rubrics are pretty well described by their name: They are rubrics that are specific to the performance task with which they are used.
Task-specific rubrics contain the answers to a problem, or explain the reasoning students are supposed to use, or list facts and concepts students are supposed to mention. The bottom panel of Figure 1. Why use general rubrics? General rubrics have several advantages over task-specific rubrics. General rubrics Can be shared with students at the beginning of an assignment, to help them plan and monitor their own work. Can be used with many different tasks, focusing the students on the knowledge and skills they are developing over time.
Describe student performance in terms that allow for many different paths to success. Focus the teacher on developing students' learning of skills instead of task completion. Do not need to be rewritten for every assignment. Let's look more closely at the first two advantages. Can be shared with students at the beginning of an assignment.
General rubrics do not "give away answers" to questions. They do not contain any information that the students are supposed to be developing themselves.
Instead, they contain descriptions like "Explanation of reasoning is clear and supported with appropriate details. They clarify for students how to approach the assignment for example, in solving the problem posed, I should make sure to explicitly focus on why I made the choices I did and be able to explain that.
Therefore, over time general rubrics help students build up a concept of what it means to perform a skill well for example, effective problem solving requires clear reasoning that I can explain and support. Can be used with many different tasks. Because general rubrics focus students on the knowledge and skills they are learning rather than the particular task they are completing, they offer the best method I know for preventing the problem of "empty rubrics" that will be described in Chapter 2.
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Good general rubrics will, by definition, not be task directions in disguise, or counts of surface features, or evaluative rating scales.
Because general rubrics focus students on the knowledge and skills they are supposed to be acquiring, they can and should be used with any task that belongs to the whole domain of learning for those learning outcomes. Of course, you never have an opportunity to give students all of the potential tasks in a domain—you can't ask them to write every possible essay about characterization, solve every possible problem involving slope, design experiments involving every possible chemical solvent, or describe every political takeover that was the result of a power vacuum.
These sets of tasks all indicate important knowledge and skills, however, and they develop over time and with practice. Essay writing, problem solving, experimental design, and the analysis of political systems are each important skills in their respective disciplines. If the rubrics are the same each time a student does the same kind of work, the student will learn general qualities of good essay writing, problem solving, and so on. If the rubrics are different each time the student does the same kind of work, the student will not have an opportunity to see past the specific essay or problem.
The general approach encourages students to think about building up general knowledge and skills rather than thinking about school learning in terms of getting individual assignments done.
Why use task-specific rubrics? Task-specific rubrics function as "scoring directions" for the person who is grading the work. Because they detail the elements to look for in a student's answer to a particular task, scoring students' responses with task-specific rubrics is lower-inference work than scoring students' responses with general rubrics. For this reason, it is faster to train raters to reach acceptable levels of scoring reliability using task-specific rubrics for large-scale assessment.
Similarly, it is easier for teachers to apply task-specific rubrics consistently with a minimum of practice. General rubrics take longer to learn to apply well.
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However, the reliability advantage is temporary one can learn to apply general rubrics well , and it comes with a big downside.
Obviously, task-specific rubrics are useful only for scoring. If students can't see the rubrics ahead of time, you can't share them with students, and therefore task-specific rubrics are not useful for formative assessment.
That in itself is one good reason not to use them except for special purposes. Task-specific rubrics do not take advantage of the most powerful aspects of rubrics—their usefulness in helping students to conceptualize their learning targets and to monitor their own progress.
Why are rubrics important? Rubrics are important because they clarify for students the qualities their work should have. This point is often expressed in terms of students understanding the learning target and criteria for success. For this reason, rubrics help teachers teach, they help coordinate instruction and assessment, and they help students learn. Rubrics help teachers teach To write or select rubrics, teachers need to focus on the criteria by which learning will be assessed.
This focus on what you intend students to learn rather than what you intend to teach actually helps improve instruction. The common approach of "teaching things," as in "I taught the American Revolution" or "I taught factoring quadratic equations," is clear on content but not so clear on outcomes. Without clarity on outcomes, it's hard to know how much of various aspects of the content to teach.
Rubrics help with clarity of both content and outcomes. Really good rubrics help teachers avoid confusing the task or activity with the learning goal, and therefore confusing completion of the task with learning.
Rubrics help keep teachers focused on criteria, not tasks. I have already discussed this point in the section about selecting criteria. Focusing rubrics on learning and not on tasks is the most important concept in this book.