However, as others said, it depends on what you are writing. Quotations and “quotes within quotes”¹. Quoted words, phrases, and sentences run into the text are enclosed in double quotation marks. Single quotation marks enclose quotations within quotations; double marks, quotations within these; and so on. The quotation marks protected the commas and periods. In the early s, it appears that the Fowler brothers (who wrote a famous British style guide called The King’s English) began lobbying to make the rules more about logic and less about the mechanics of typesetting. They won the British battle, but Americans didn’t adopt the change. Punctuating quotations in essays can be varied for different cases. Single marks must be used for quotes within quotes. Direct quotations should be introduced and interrupted with commas. If your quotation goes before words “she said”, “he reported”, “they . Quotation marks are used for components, such as chapter titles in a book, individual episodes of a TV series, songs from a Broadway show or a music album, titles of articles or essays in print or online, and shorter works such as short stories and poems. Here are a few general tips for setting off your block quotations: Set up a block quotation with your own words followed by a colon. Indent. You normally indent spaces for the start of a paragraph. When setting up a block quotation, indent the entire paragraph once from the left-hand margin.
- Rules for Punctuating Quotes in Your Essay
- Quotation Marks
- Self-published Book Production: 10 Typesetting Rules for Indie Authors
While the template may take care of some decisions for you e.
Unlike a book designer, in most cases, a template will not take care of basic typesetting rules, leaving it up to the author to struggle to achieve the correct format. Very distracting to the reader! A book designer will make manual adjustments, page by page, to solve the problems while keeping the line spacing consistent throughout the book. Knowing these rules upfront will allow you to make decisions and choose the correct settings in your software before you begin formatting your book.
Joao Silas via unsplash. Allow for the book binding Leave a generous margin around the top, bottom and sides of the page, making allowances for the headers and footers.
Most POD printers require margins of at least half an inch all around. More allowance is needed for longer books. Talk to a customer service representative from the print-on-demand or printing company to find out how much allowance you should make for the book binding, or download specifications from their website. Set your outside margins accordingly. Choose a serif font For the body text paragraphs , a serif font is best.
Rules for Punctuating Quotes in Your Essay
Our mind is trained to recognize the shapes of words rather than reading letter by letter. Serifs form links between letters and give each word shape. Set Up the Book Block: Line Alignment Pull out your sample book again and lay it flat. Notice that the text is confined to a tightly-defined area on every page; this is called the book block.
When a book is opened, facing pages should end on the same line other than the last page of a chapter. Now, take a ruler and place it across the facing pages.
In a properly designed book, this alignment should occur regardless of headings on the page, spaces between paragraphs, illustrations or tables. Achieving this effect means calculating the line spacing, space above, and space below these items so that the total is an exact multiple of the line spacing used in ordinary paragraphs. Why are we picking on widows and orphans?
Each of these situations makes the reader stop, which impedes reading comprehension. Widows and orphans are also a sure sign that a book was not professionally typeset. Some say word widows greater than five characters in length including punctuation are okay, while others say no word should appear by itself on a line.
If possible, adjust the spacing subtly between characters in your paragraph so that the widow is able to join its peers on the previous line, but be careful that the adjustment does not make the paragraph appear lighter or darker than surrounding paragraphs.
Ben White via Unsplash 7. Format Special Characters Properly: Ellipses, quotation marks and trademarks Not all software will automatically insert the proper quotation marks. Watch also for ellipses: Note that the Chicago Manual of Style specifies three periods with a non-breaking space in between, like so: Em dashes are not just two hyphens in a row — ; a proper dash should be inserted —.
Paragraph Spacing and Indentation The first paragraph of a chapter or a new section should not be indented.
All subsequent paragraphs should be indented. When indents are being used to indicate the beginning of a new paragraph, do not insert an extra line between the paragraphs. A line space above a paragraph can, however, be used sparingly to indicate a scene change or a new section. Word Spacing Should Be Even Different fonts require different combinations of justification settings to look just right.
Justification settings are word spacing, letter spacing kerning and glyph scaling. To make text easier to read, word spacing should be fairly close. Avoid squishing in letters too tightly when trying to rid yourself of word widows as those lines are barely readable!
Take Care of Word Stacks Do you have any paragraphs where the same word appears at the beginning or end of a line or on consecutive lines three times in a row or more?
These are known as word stacks.
Self-published Book Production: 10 Typesetting Rules for Indie Authors
Take care of these annoying phenomena by adjusting the word and character spacing, or by rewriting the text. Anything that makes your reader stop diverts their concentration from your content. Join the conversation via the comments box!