DBQ- Positive and Negative Effects of Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution began in England in the late ’s. The Industrial Revolution was a time of new inventions, products, and methods of work. This essay evaluates how, and in what ways England had been affected by the Industrial Revolution both negatively and positively. Most importantly, the research will focus on the ways in which the Industrial Revolution may have prevented the Malthusian Catastrophe in England. Essay Effects Of The Industrial Revolution On America. The Effects of the Industrial Revolution Prior to the industrial revolution American businesses did not have the qualities that allowed for efficiency. Making products to sell was a slow process that was too costly for the common man to purchase. The Industrial Revolution is easily one of the single most significant events in human history and a popular choice for research paper and essay writeanessayforme.pw a mechanism of social change, the Revolution spurred massive economic growth, urbanization, changed gender roles, broke apart traditional family structures, and paved the way for the development of the modern nation-state and global economy/5(11). This essay seeks to discuss various effects of the revolution on all aspects of development in the countries involved. Trade was influential to the industrial process. Neil Tonge described it as the wealth of the world. Industrial Revolution in England Industrial .
- Descriptive Essay: The Industrial Revolution and its Effects
- Positive and Negative Effects of the Industrial Revolution
The steam engine was the energy behind the most advanced textile inventions, such as the spinning mule and the power loom. It symbolized the transition from human power in homes to machine power in factories. Moreover, the steam engine revolutionized transportation when it was applied to locomotives and ships. So how did this amazing invention come about? And how did it work? The steam engine was originally invented in England to pull water out of coal mines.
For thousands of years, wood from local forests had been the main fuel in England, as well as the main material for shipbuilding and housing construction. By the end of the 17th century, however, few forests remained Weightman So the English sought to find an alternative energy source for heating.
They turned to coal, which was in great supply. By the early s, the easy-to-reach open coal pits were gone, and mine shafts as deep as feet were dug to find it In these deep shafts, groundwater would eventually seep in and flood the tunnels.
This seepage was dangerous for miners and expensive for mine owners. Miners used pots, hand pumps and, occasionally, windmills to drain the water.
Finally, in , Thomas Newcomen invented a simple engine that used steam to pump water out of coalmines. Boiled water created steam, which entered a chamber or cylinder, which pushed a piston up. The piston lifted a pump. Watch this animation to see it in action. But it could only create a pumping motion and not a rotating motion that might be used to grind wheat or move machinery. In fact, it was so inefficient in its use of energy that nobody used it for any other purpose for over sixty years In the old engine, as you can see from the animation, a piston moved up and down as steam was injected: But this resulted in a waste of energy and a waste of time, as the piston cylinder changed temperature and had to be constantly reheated.
He suddenly understood that a separate cylinder—called a condenser—could be kept permanently cool while being connected to the piston cylinder, which would remain hot Putting the insight into practice, Watt added a second cylinder or chamber.
The steam would be sucked out of the piston chamber and into the new cylinder, cool off, condense, and thus form a vacuum that used atmospheric pressure to move the piston. Meanwhile, the cylinder with the moving piston remained hot as another injection of steam entered.
Known for this famous flash of insight, Watt was actually a relentless and careful experimenter, a student of the Scientific Revolution.
In all his work, he used rigorous and precise scientific methods to test his ideas.
Three minutes into this video below , there is a very clear animation and explanation of Newcomen's steam engine and what Watt did to make it so much more productive. After years of struggling on his own to make the new steam engine work correctly, Watt successfully teamed up with the largest and most famous factory in the world, Soho Manufactory, which made jewelry, silverware, and tools in Birmingham, England.
The owner was looking for an energy source that was more powerful than water wheels. At Soho, Watt met and collaborated with the most skilled ironworkers and engineers in the country. Watt continued to tinker and improve it so that steam could be injected into both sides of the piston cylinder, creating a double-acting piston.
In , Watt pressed on further to adapt the engine from a reciprocal up-and-down motion to a turning or rotary motion. Now, the steam engine could supply consistent and cheap energy for all the latest textile inventions. The new steam engine could be harnessed to all these new inventions.
In , the year after Watt perfected the rotary steam engine, there were only two cotton mill factories in Manchester. Twenty years later there were more than He travelled to Northern Italy to steal designs for secret Italian machines that spun and wove the silk it is worth noting here that the Chinese had been spinning and weaving silk with simple looms for thousands of years before the Italians. In , Lombe patented the ideas as his own in Great Britain and built a large building next to a river to use a water wheel to power the machines.
The mill was five stories high and employed men. But this silk factory came into mind years later when industrialists were looking for ways to power new textile inventions at one location.
As textile inventions grew in size , they could no longer fit in cottages Rosen ; wikipedia article on factories. Arkwright built his first cotton mill just away from a river and dug out a channel or millrace, so that the water wheel benefitted from the current, as well as the gravity of water coming down hill and into a narrow chute Rosen Textile factories no longer had to be built right next to a river. However large buildings were required for the new large steam engines, spinning mules, and power looms.
In , Arkwright used steam power to run his spinning mule factory.
Workers, along with their families, congregated at these new factories. Their need for stores, churches and the like resulted in the formation of small communities, which became towns and cities. Another important result of the factory was specialization of labor. In , Adam Smith, a Scottish economist, wrote the all-time most influential and famous economics book: For Smith, the key to the efficiency, productivity, and quality control of a factory was the division of labor.
This was a process by which the key tasks in manufacturing were identified and assigned to individual workers to specialize, perfect and repeat with dispatch. Railroads The steam engine, it turns out, also sparked innovative methods of transportation. Railways were not new in pre-industrial Britain. There were over 1, railways by , most of them connected to an iron pit or a coal mine with a canal or river.
But all of these railways were drawn by horses Weightman In fact, horses were the best form of land transportation in Eurasia since the beginning of time; the only other option was to walk.
Steam would change all that. The first full-scale steam-powered locomotive took its maiden voyage down the main street of Camborne, England on Christmas Eve in After the first run, the inventor parked it in a shed and went to celebrate his success.
Unfortunately, he forgot to turn the boiler off and the entire shed and locomotive were destroyed in a fire. But Trevithick got another chance. An ironworks owner built a nine-mile railway to compete with a canal. Horses pulled cars full of iron and coal along the rails. Sadly, Trevithick could never turn the invention into financial success: A young self-taught engineer, George Stephenson, picked up where Trevithick left off. Stephenson was raised in coalfields, where his family worked.
Descriptive Essay: The Industrial Revolution and its Effects
He took jobs there, first working in the mines with a pick and then working on an old Newcomen steam engine that pumped water out of mine shafts. Stephenson grew up illiterate, like the rest of his family, but, as a teenager, taught himself to read and hired a tutor to teach him basic math.
To make extra money, he learned to repair watches. At 22 years old, Stephenson was put in charge of running a Watt steam engine at a spinning factory. Over the following years, he taught himself mechanical engineering by taking apart steam engines and other machines,putting them back together. He took out patents on a steam engine locomotive and iron rails in In , Stephenson was commissioned to construct a mile railway line from Liverpool to Manchester.
Manchester was the largest industrial town in the world, and merchants needed to transport lots of cotton and finished cloth.
Stephenson surveyed the route and built the railway. He set the distance between the two tracks at four feet, eight and a half inches, because it happened to be the width of some coal-mining cars—and this would become the worldwide standard railroad gauge. In , the railway owners sponsored a contest to find out who could make the fastest and most reliable locomotive to run on the newly built Manchester-to-Liverpool railway.
Most contestants entered steam-powered vehicles, but one underdog participant actually used a horse trotting on a treadmill attached to a car. A man named George and his son, Robert, called their locomotive the Rocket. They defeated five competitors and reached average speeds of at least 29 miles per hour. On the day the Manchester-to-Liverpool railroad was opened to the public, a member of Parliament and a supporter of the railway was accidently killed by the Rocket.
Positive and Negative Effects of the Industrial Revolution
The competition garnered much attention in England and Europe; Stephenson and other top competitors took offers for their new locomotives from as far away as Russia. In , just two years after the race, the Liverpool-to-Manchester railway carried , passengers, 43, tons of cotton, and 11, tons of coal.
By , the railway carried , tons of coal Weightman ; Rosen to This silent movie used a replica of Stephenson's Rocket.
It gives you a sense of the size and speed of the famous train.
But, it also would not have occurred were it not for the rising cotton industry that created the need for the railroad in the industrial town of Manchester.
And, of course, the new railroads used coal as the main fuel source. The ultimate triumph of the Industrial Revolution, railroads moved people, raw materials, and finished goods rapidly around England. This interaction brought people to the new industrial cities; gradually increased trade within England, Europe, and the world; and helped turn England into the wealthiest nation on earth.