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- The Impact of genetic fingerprinting and gene profiling in Forensic Science
- Brain fingerprinting
- The Brain Fingerprinting Through Digital Electroencephalography Signal Technique
- Vegetative State Article Summary
Brain Fingerprinting is based on the principle that the brain is central to all human acts. In a criminal act, there may or may not be many kinds of peripheral evidence, but the brain is always there, planning, executing, and recording the crime. The fundamental difference between a perpetrator and a falsely accused, innocent person is that the perpetrator, having committed the crime, has the details of the crime stored in his brain, and the innocent suspect does not.
This is what Brain Fingerprinting detects scientifically. The secrets of Brain Fingerprinting: Matching evidence at the crime scene with evidence in the brain When a crime is committed, a record is stored in the brain of the perpetrator. Brain Fingerprinting provides a means to objectively and scientifically connect evidence from the crime scene with evidence stored in the brain.
This is similar to the process of connecting DNA samples from the perpetrator with biological evidence found at the scene of the crime; only the evidence evaluated by Brain Fingerprinting is evidence stored in the brain. Brain Fingerprinting measures electrical brain activity in response to crime-relevant words or pictures presented on a computer screen, and reveals a brain MERMER memory and encoding related multifaceted electroencephalographic response when, and only when, the evidence stored in the brain matches the evidence from the crime scene.
Thus, the guilty can be identified and the innocent can be cleared in an accurate, scientific, objective, non- invasive, non-stressful, and non-testimonial manner.
Brain fingerprinting has been applied in a number of high-profile criminal cases, including helping to catch serial killer JB Grinder and to exonerate innocent convict Terry Harrington after he had been falsely convicted of murder. Brain fingerprinting has been ruled admissible in court.
Brain fingerprinting technique has been criticized on a number of front. Peter Rosenfeld used Pbased tests incorporating fundamentally different methods, resulting in as low as chance accuracy as well as susceptibility to countermeasures, and criticized brain fingerprinting based on the premise that the shortcomings of his alternative technique should generalize to all other techniques in which the P is among the brain responses measured, including brain fingerprinting.
The application of this in brain fingerprinting is to detect the P as a response to stimuli related to the crime or other investigated situation, e. Because it is based on EEG signals, the system does not require the subject to issue verbal responses to questions or stimuli.
The Impact of genetic fingerprinting and gene profiling in Forensic Science
The person to be tested wears a special headband with electronic sensors that measure the EEG from several locations on the scalp. The subject views stimuli consisting of words, phrases, or pictures presented on a computer screen. Stimuli are of three types: Probes contain information that is known only to the perpetrator and investigators, and not to the general public or to an innocent suspect who was not at the scene of the crime.
The scientist also makes sure that the subject does not know the probes for any reason unrelated to the crime, and that the subject denies knowing the probes. The subject is told why the probes are significant e. Since brain fingerprinting uses cognitive brain responses, brain fingerprinting does not depend on the emotions of the subject, nor is it affected by emotional responses.
Brain fingerprinting is fundamentally different from the polygraph lie-detector , which measures emotion-based physiological signals such as heart rate, sweating, and blood pressure. This determination is mathematically computed, and does not involve the subjective judgment of the scientist.
The technique is described in Dr. The paper describes a test of brain fingerprinting, a technology based on EEG that is purported to be able to detect the existence of prior knowledge or memory in the brain.
The P occurs when the tested subject is presented with a rarely occurring stimulus that is significant in context for example, in the context of a crime. When an irrelevant stimulus is presented, a P is not expected to occur. The P is widely known in the scientific community, and is also known as an oddball-evoked P While researching the P, Dr. Farwell created a more detailed test that not only includes the P, but also observes the stimulus response up to ms after the stimulus.
The P, an electrically positive component, is maximal Dept.
The Brain Fingerprinting Through Digital Electroencephalography Signal Technique
In fingerprinting and DNA fingerprinting, evidence recognized and collected at the crime scene, and preserved properly until a suspect is apprehended, is scientifically compared with evidence on the person of the suspect to detect a match that would place the suspect at the crime scene.
Brain Fingerprinting works similarly, except that the evidence collected both at the crime scene and on the person of the suspect i. There are four stages to Brain Fingerprinting, which are similar to the steps in fingerprinting and DNA fingerprinting: Brain Fingerprinting Brain Evidence Collection; 3.
Brain Fingerprinting Computer Evidence Analysis; and 4. Brain Fingerprinting Scientific Result. In the Crime Scene Evidence Collection, an expert in Brain Fingerprinting examines the crime scene and other evidence connected with the crime to identify details of the crime that would be known only to the perpetrator. The expert then conducts the Brain Evidence Collection in order to determine whether or not the evidence from the crime scene matches evidence stored in the brain of the suspect.
In the Computer Evidence Analysis, the Brain Fingerprinting system makes a mathematical determination as to whether or not this specific evidence is stored in the brain, and computes a statistical confidence for that determination.
This determination and statistical confidence constitute the Scientific Result of Brain Fingerprinting: The detection of concealed information stored in the brains of suspects, witnesses, intelligence sources, and others is of central concern to all phases of law enforcement, government and private investigations, and intelligence operations.
Brain Fingerprinting presents a new paradigm in forensic science. This new system detects information directly, on the basis of the electrophysiological manifestations of information-processing brain activity, measured non-invasively from the scalp.
Vegetative State Article Summary
Since Brain Fingerprinting depends only on brain information processing, it does not depend on the emotional response of the subject. Brain Fingerprinting utilizes multifaceted electroencephalographic response analysis MERA to detect information stored in the human brain.
A memory and encoding related multifaceted electroencephalographic response MERMER is elicited when an individual recognizes and processes an incoming stimulus that is significant or noteworthy. The MERMER occurs within about a second after the stimulus presentation, and can be readily detected using EEG amplifiers and a computerized signal-detection algorithm. Brain Fingerprinting incorporates the following procedure. A sequence of words or pictures is presented on a video monitor under computer control.
Each stimulus appears for a fraction of a second. Three types of stimuli are presented: Some of the non-target stimuli are relevant to the crime or situation under investigation. These relevant stimuli are referred to as probes. For a subject who has committed the crime, the probes are noteworthy due to his knowledge of the details of the crime, and therefore probes elicit a brain MERMER.
For an innocent subject lacking this detailed knowledge of the crime, the probes are indistinguishable from the irrelevant stimuli.
The entire Brain Fingerprinting System is under computer control, including presentation of the stimuli and recording of electrical brain activity, as well as a mathematical data analysis algorithm that compares the responses to the three types of stimuli and produces a determination of "information present" "guilty" or "information absent" "innocent" , and a statistical confidence level for this determination.
At no time during the testing and data analysis do any biases and interpretations of a system expert affect the stimulus presentation or brain responses. The devices used in brain fingerprinting Dept. Using brain waves to detect guilt How it works: A Suspect is tested by looking at three kinds of information represented by Different colored lines: Because the blue and green because the blue and red Lines closely correlate, suspect does Lines closely correlate, and suspect has Not have critical knowledge of the crime critical knowledge of the crime Dept.
Scientific studies, field tests, and actual criminal cases involving over individuals described in various scientific publications and technical reports by Dr. Farwell have verified the extremely high level of accuracy and overall effectiveness of Brain Fingerprinting. Some of these tests are described below. Stimulus was presented at 0 msec.
Certain significant details of the murder of John Schweer are not stored in Terry Harrington's brain. Certain significant details of the murder of John Schweer are stored in Terry Harrington's brain. Brain Fingerprinting has two primary applications: The seminal paper by Dr.
Farwell and Emmanuel Donchin reported successful application of the technique in detecting knowledge of both laboratory mock crimes and real-life events, with no false positives and no false negatives. In a study with the FBI, Dr. A group of 17 FBI agents and 4 non- agents were exposed to stimuli words, phrases, and acronyms that were flashed on a computer screen. The probe stimuli contained information that would be common knowledge only to someone with FBI training.
Brain fingerprinting correctly distinguished the FBI agents from the non-agents. In a study funded by the CIA, Farwell and colleagues used brain fingerprinting to detect which individuals had US Navy military medical training. All 30 subjects were correctly determined to have or not to have the specific information regarding military medicine stored in their brains.
In another CIA-funded study, brain fingerprinting correctly detected which individuals had participated in specific real-life events, some of which were crimes, based on the record stored in their brains.
Farwell collaborated with FBI scientist Sharon Smith in a further study in which brain fingerprinting detected real-life events that was published in the Journal of Forensic Sciences. In another CIA-funded study, a group of subjects enacted a simulated espionage scenario and were then tested on relevant stimuli in the form of pictorial probes.
For the test on Schweer's murder, the determination of Brain Fingerprinting was "information absent," with a statistical confidence of The information stored in Harrington's brain did not match the scenario in which Harrington went to the crime scene and committed the murder. The determination of the Brain Fingerprinting test for alibi-relevant information was "information present," with a confidence of The information stored in Harrington's brain did match the scenario in which Harrington was elsewhere at a concert and with friends at the time of the crime.
Limitations of brain fingerprinting: Detecting that a suspect knows information he obtained by reading a newspaper would not be of use in a criminal investigation, and standard brain fingerprinting procedures eliminate all such information from the structuring of a test. It simply detects information. No questions are asked or answered during a brain fingerprinting test.