Psychology Perspectives An approach is a perspective/view that involves certain assumptions like beliefs, about human behaviour, the way they function, which aspects of them are worthy of study and what research methods are appropriate for undertaking this study. Sample Essay. 1 work cited. Length: words. This essay discusses psychology perspectives. Psychology is the study of human as well as animal behavior. The paragraphs which follow will distinguish between psychodynamic, humanistic and behavioral perspectives which exist within psychology today. There are four main perspectives in psychology. These are known as; behaviourism, humanism, psychodynamic and cognitive. Each of them explain some aspects of human behaviour well, but one perspective cannot explain all human behaviour. Behaviourism is primarily concerned with observable behaviour; the behaviour which can be watched and seen by others. Sample Essay. 1 work cited. Length: words. Psychology is the study of human and animal behavior. There are various perspectives within psychology and the upcoming paragraphs deal with 3 psychological perspectives; humanistic, psychodynamic and behavioral. Perspectives in Psychology essaysSigmund Freud developed the psychoanalytical perspective by combining ideas of perception and memory with beliefs of biologically based instincts. His feelings were that unconscious processes such as fears and desires influence behaviour. Continue reading this essay Continue reading. Page 1 of 3. Next Page.
These are known as; behaviourism, humanism, psychodynamic and cognitive.
Each of them explain some aspects of human behaviour well, but one perspective cannot explain all human behaviour. Behaviourism is primarily concerned with observable behaviour; the behaviour which can be watched and seen by others.
It does not focus on any internal events, such as thinking, memory or the mind.
It suggests that all behaviours are the result of some sort of stimulus, which triggers a response. Behaviourists believe that no matter how complicated the behaviour, it can be reduced down to a simple stimulus and response association.
Watson described the purpose of psychology as To predict, given the stimulus, what reaction will take place; or, given the reaction, state what the situation or stimulus is that has caused the reaction.
We are assumed to be born Tabula Rasa and the behaviourism perspective believes we learn new behaviour through classical and operant conditioning. Watson believed that classical conditioning explained all aspects of psychology, that the way we behave is just patterns of stimulus and responses.
Perspectives Essay Examples
It involves learning behaviour via association. In the ethically dubious experiment Little Albert Watson and Raynor showed the way in which humans and animals could both learn by classical conditioning.
Little Albert was a nine month old infant, Watson and Raynor used classical conditioning to make Little Albert afraid of a white rat which he previously had no fear of.
Thus proving classical conditioning can be used to create a phobia. This is called operant conditioning which is based on the work of Thorndike who suggested the Law of Effect theory.
Skinner introduced Law of Effect Reinforcement, suggesting behaviour which is reinforced tends to be repeated. Essentially it is about changing behaviour by reinforcement positive or negative after a desired response.
He discovered that any behaviour not reinforced tends to become extinguished. Thorndike studied the way cats behaved when placed in a puzzle box.
Four Main Perspectives in Psychology
The cat was encourage to escape the box with food and timed to do so. After opening the box for the first time the cat learned how to open the box and became quicker at doing so, suggesting positive reinforcement strengthens behaviour Cited from McLeod, , retrieved from http: Skinners Box also showed how positive reinforcement worked and that it strengthens behaviour.
Three factors affect operant conditioning; neutral operants, re-inforcers and punishers. Cited from McLeod, , retrieved from http: Behaviourism is applied in behaviour therapy, and used to treat phobias; it can be used to explain relationships, language, moral development, aggression and addiction.
It is highly scientific as there are many experiments to support this theory. It emphasizes on objective measurement and data that can be quantitively measured.
It also linked the way in which humans and animals learn behaviour. Limitations of behaviourism…; There are four main perspectives in psychology. Limitations of behaviourism… Use the order calculator below and get started! Contact our live support team for any assistance or inquiry.